Information management, knowledge management and quality management at organizations

By Lic. Lourdes Aja Quiroga.

Abstracs: The different meanings of the terms information management, knowledge management, and quality management are analyzed; as well as their relation to the information institutions activities. It is demonstrated that the existence of one of them implies the presence of the others, if the information institution is considered as an organization of knowledge and excellence.

Subject headings: MANAGEMENT CAPACITY; INFORMATION CENTERS; INFORMATION SCIENCE, QUALITY MANAGEMENT

In the era of the information, of the explosion of his technologies, lives the stage in which the mankind has achieved an unpredictable development; each day are main the social differences, political and economic. It speaks constantly on the society of the information, is visible the step of the industrial societies to the posindustriales and of the knowledge, where the essential factor of progress is the knowledge. This new society, with organizations based in the learning, cuyo his capital more preciado is the human being, sustenta in a technological development without precedents, is the point in which the big companies schedule his products in function of the management of the knowledge and of the feasibility for his obtención. In this context, has to understand that the technologies of information and the telecommunications are not more that a means to transmit and gestionar data, information and knowledge, the knowledge is fundamental factor for the creation of wealths. In the era of the information, one of the main problems is his excess, is necessary to reverse long in her owed, between other causes, to the release of the mechanisms regulatorios existent in subject of publications, especially like result of the surgimiento and development of Internet; by this reason, is frequent to find a significant number of publications redundantes and low quality mixed with other important and solid, difficult to find between the noisy information that wraps "it". They are multiple the definitions of a same concept, for example, exists a crowd of definitions, that in his group are quite shoot and, in a lot of cases, ambiguous. This owe , by a part, to the approach with which defines the concept (cultural, organizational or technological), and by another, to that exist different approximations, in dependency of his concrete application to real cases.1 The information is a fundamental element for the development, with the decursar of the years, the management of the information occupies, increasingly, a main space in the economy of the to scale world-wide countries. Bárbara Spiegelman, when posing the immediate need to implant models for the management of the total quality in the institutions of information,2 leaves to glimpse the narrow relation that exists between management of the information, of the knowledge and of the quality in the quehacer of an organization. With the surgimiento of the theory of the organization, stressed the importance of the information. An organization is a system conformado by people, material resources and information. This last determine the "order and the chaos"3 between the individuals, the resources and in the interrelación people-resources. By this reason, has to consider to the organizations like systems of information. The impact of the economic changes, political, cultural, technological and others has originated a revolution in subject of management of information in the organizations,4 transformed then the norms, the concepts, the procedures, the behaviour, as well as the products and the services, a new attitude permea the quehacer daily of the projection and the development of the activities of information; indiscutiblemente the new model of management has like indispensable base the management of the knowledge.5 An institution of information is an organization of the knowledge, that by means of a group of processes, gestiona the capacities, caters to the teams of work with resources for the solution of the problems of form eficiente in the lower possible time, with the objective end to obtain sustainable competitive advantages in the time and to increase the gains. In this sense, Gilberto Sotolongo express that "the management of the information occupy of the final results, no only of appointments and localizaciones".6 Fernández-Molina The corrobora when it affirms that the professionals of the information and his institutions are an indispensable factor for the permanence of the organization in the market.7 The management of the knowledge is the management of the active intangibles that aportan value to the organization to the moment to obtain capacities and distinctive essential competitions. In the world of the services of information, the ideas of the quality do not have to vincularse only with the possession of technological resources. If the user/client does not receive the services like him requests them and expects them, the failure is safe. The examinations to determine the quality of the products and services are the result of the development of international norms, regional and national directed to auxiliary to the parts interested: providers, producing, comercializadores and clients in the hallazgo of an instrument of common consensus for the evaluation. Some of the most known standards are the norms ISO of the series 9000, 9001 and 9004. The norms ISO 9000 range a rationalization of many and varied national approaches in this esfera, however, is not until 1987, when it publishes the series ISO 9000, attaches to ISO-8402 in which sintetizan the refered approaches that cause the definite internationalization of the norms and the systems of quality; they were further of the limits of the industrial sector, with the desplazamiento of the world-wide economy to the sector of the services, penetrated also in this last. Today is frequent to speak of systems of quality that work in his distinct categories, included the ones of the health and of the information.8 The current editions of the norms ISO 9000 - 9004 are a coherent group of norms for the management of the quality, designed of complementary form, but that can use like independent documents. The norm ISO 9000 describes the principles of the systems of the quality and specifies the terminology of the systems of management.9 The norm ISO 9001, by his part, establishes the requirements for a system of management of the quality, useful for his internal application by the organizations. Center in the efficiency of the system of management of the quality to fulfil with the requirements of the client.10 The norm ISO 9004 orienta on a wider rank of aims for a system of management of the quality that the norm 9001, especially for the continuous improvement of the exert, the efficiency and the eficiencia global of the organization. Recommend like a guide for those organizations cuya high direction wish to go further of the requirements of the norm ISO 9001, looks for the continuous improvement of the exert.11 conceptual Frame Management: Activities coordinated to direct and control an organization.9 Organization: Group of people and installations with a disposal determined of responsibilities, authorities and relations.9 Quality: Degree in that a group of inherent characteristics (to an object, product, service, etc.) Fulfils with a need or expectation established, generally implicit or compulsory.9 total Quality: it Pretends to elevate the quality of all the results of the organization included the ones of the financial management. These models look for the excellence in the exert global of the organization, is to say, in all his results.9 Knowledge: it Is a group formed by information, rules, interpretations and connections, situated inside a context and an experience, purchased by an organization, well of an individual or institutional form. The knowledge only reside in a connoisseur, a specific person that internalizes it rational or irracionalmente.12 Management of the knowledge: Process by means of which develop , structure and keeps the information, with the aim to transform it in an active critical and put it to disposal of a community of users, defined with the necessary security. It includes the learning, the information, the aptitudes and the experience developed during the history of the organization.13 Other authors define it like a group of activities and practical orientadas to the acquisition more eficiente of the skills associated with a knowledge and his correct utilization, with the purpose to obtain the best results in the development of the activities of a determined organization.1 Management of the quality: Activities coordinated to direct and control an organization in subject of quality.9 System of management of the quality: System to direct and control an organization regarding the quality.9 Information: social Form of existence of the knowledge consolidated in a source determined.14 Management of information: it Comprises the activities related with the obtención of the felicitous information, to a felicitous price, in the time and felicitous place, to take the felicitous decision.15 Organization of learning: Organizations where the aptitude of the human resources grows continuously to achieve the results that wishes, where cultivate patterns of new and expansionary thought, where the aspiración collective remains in freedom and the personnel continuously learns to learn in group.16 User/client: Organization or person that receives a product or service like result of the management of information.9,14 Management of information, of the knowledge and of the quality in the organizations The institutions of information are organizations that loan services to his clients, individual or corporate, designed purportedly in accordance with the demands and needs of the users. They are institutions cuya main function is the management of the knowledge, that as it refered previously comprises the process of learning, from an open aptitude to the change. Peter Senge proposes five disciplines of the learning organizacional:17 - systematic Thought. - Personal command. - Mental models. - Vision shared. - Learning in team. The organizations based in the learning bear his development in the management of information, are by excellence organizations of knowledge, that learn with feelings of belonging, of community, that perfect his culture like organization, independently of his ejecutividad, competitiveness and gain, that regenerate to if same by means of the creation of knowledges, from a learning to level of system. In the management of the knowledge exist common factors, indispensable for the survival and the progress of any organization, between which identify the Innovation, the Capacity of answer, the Productivity and the Competition. The management of the knowledge, like process of identification, capture, organization and dissemination of the key data and the necessary information to help to the organization to answer to the needs of the clients, looks for the perpetuación and the materialization of the potential of the organizations. The organizations that develop a management of the knowledge present the following common shots:18 - Capacity for cohesionar, to generate a strong feeling of identity. - Sensitivity to the surroundings with the end to learn and adapt. - Tolerancia With the thought and the no conventional experience. - Precaución Financial, to retain the resources that ensure the indispensable flexibility in the current surroundings. Although a lot of organizations say to base in the management of the knowledge, his employment is almost invalid in most of they; the use sistémico of the external information is practically non-existent or limit to the follow-up of the press .19 Some organizations, even at present, are unable to comprise that the information is a resource, a value or an active equal that any another and that like resource has characteristic that do it similar or different to the other, or are, that purchase to a cost, possesses values, require of the control of his costs, has a cycle of life, can process and exist substitutes for specific informations The information difference to be:20 · Expandible · Comprimible · Sustituible · Difusa · Shared Some of these characteristics can appear in other types of resources. The services of information, like essential part of the infrastructure for the management of the knowledge, supply information, impulsan the generation of the knowledge for the research of solutions to the problems that enfrentan the organizations, analyse his impact on the results of the companies and influence in the behaviour of the individuals in front of the information. The management of the information vincula with the generation and the application of strategies, the establishment of politics, as well as with the development of a culture organizacional and social directed to the rational use, efectivo and eficiente of the information in function of the objective and metas of the companies in subject of exert and of quality. The current strategies for the management of the information and the knowledge have to answer the new types of demands, resultant of the aparición of trends gerenciales more modern in the organizations. In the creation of the new systems of management of the information is indispensable to consider the sources factográficas (data), documentary and no documentary, the systems informáticos, the culture of information, the models of communication, between other elements. As the requests of the internal processes of work and the flows of own information, all they have to propiciar the management of the knowledge organizacional and the implementation of systems of management of the quality for the evaluation of the results and the projects of the institution. Require , besides, of the incorporation of new values to the products and services of information, as well as of a dissemination very well directed, with the end that they arrive to those individuals and sections cuya activity of generation or application of the knowledge and of take of decisions is more important for the company. The management of the knowledge looks for to ensure that the organization disponga of the information and the necessary capacities for his continuous adaptation to the internal and external changes of the means ambiente. Of a correct management of the information and of the knowledge depends, to a large extent, the implementation of the gerencia of the quality. The management of the quality, as the international norm ISO 9004, base in eight principles, developed with the intention that the high direction of the companies employ them for liderear the organization to a better exert. They are:11 · Approach to the client. · Leadership. · Participation of the personnel. · Approach to the processes. · Approach of system for the management. · Continuous improvement. · It takes of decisions based in facts. · Relations mutuamente beneficial with the provider. The successful application of them generates significant profits for the parts interested, as they are the improvement in the rentabilidad, the creation of value and the increase of the estabilidad. The introduction of the ideas and principles of the gerencia of quality caused a revolution in the philosophy of the administration. She includes the strategic planning, the allocation of resources, the planning, the operations and the relative evaluations to the quality.21 His practice is directed to design and generate services and products always satisfactory for the client. The application of the management of quality, of his parameters evaluativos and of his exigencias has to realize of global form and no fragmentada, if you understand that the quality is a resultant integradora of the management of the information and of the knowledge, of the businesses/activities of the organization, of the functions, and generally, of all his integrantes. A felicitous management of the information, in the context of a gerencia of the quality, posibilita reduce the risks in the administration of the organization, as they are takes it of decisions rushed, late or inconsistentes, the entrance to the market with products no competitive, between others, that ocasionan losses and reduce his competitiveness in the market. Obtain the necessary information, with the quality required, is an indispensable premise for the survival of the companies, if you consider that the organizations shorten increasingly his strategic cycles and that takes it of decisions, as well as the change is contínuo. It is obvious that an eficiente management of the information, like part of the application of a politics of management of the quality, guarantees no only that the institutions of information loan services eficientes, but that the organization obtain main gains and a better competitiveness in the market. In subject of control of quality, authors like Taylor pose that the specialists establish the technical standards, the employees/operarios fulfil them and the supervisors verifican the once finished results the process,22 however, others like Deming highlight the importance of the flexibility in the organizations and in the implementation of the management of the total quality.23 Likewise expresses that to improve the quality, the productivity and the competitiveness is necessary to realize drastic changes and learn how has to change. Different groups of experts on subjects of management of the quality agree in some basic appearances, for example, that to implant a system of management of the information, of quality or another type require of the impulse decided of the direction. It is the gerencia or the team of direction the maximum authority to establish the politics of the organization. In said process, is indispensable the information generated by the different sources and half, own of the infrastructure of information that possesses the organization. It is the high direction of the company the first that has to sensitize, motivate, convince and decide to realize the necessary changes in subject of politics in the organization. Also pose that it is indispensable that all in the organization, from the highest executives until the least important employees, take part in the control of quality. The change in the philosophy of the management involves the step of the requirements of the client to the first level of importance, between the considered, to the moment to design, manufacture and sell the products and services. Once established, the politics have to specify the metas, which have to express in figures and concrete terms: personnel required, costs, volumes of production, terms of delivery, etc. Without information of quality, without the data or the necessary knowledges, is impossible gestionar quality. As the management of the quality looks for a continuous improvement to level of all the organization, is easy to comprise the importance of the information for all the involucrados. The supply of the information, with a strong formative action, will realize in different areas, between which identify the principles that orientarán the management and the operatividad of the organization, the need of the process, because of his contribution to the development and the competitiveness of the organization, the processes designed to control the quality in the organization, the Implantation, evaluation and follow-up of the processes process is a group of activities that generate value added to the information and to the organization) and the control of the quality. One of the slopes of the management of the information, in function of the management of the quality, is the identification of the errors and his causes. The transparency in the flow of information guarantees the implantation of the approaches of the management of the quality in the organization. The information is an important agent in the modification of the existent behaviours in the organization, his correct management is a fundamental tool stop takes it of decisions, the training of the personnel, the evaluation of the products, the determination of the errors and the control of the processes. The information is a vital resource for the development of the organization. The character intangible of the information has done that a lot of directors of the organization do not reverse the sufficient resources for the activities of information. The quality is a problem of orientation, of leadership, of participation of the employees and of his training.24 In any case, the improvement of the quality is a process endless, that has to carry step to step and of the that can not expect immediate results. In the current world, the management of the knowledge by part of the company, purchases new characteristic, determined by the management of the information and of the quality.25 In the most modern organizations cohabitan, indisolublemente tied, the management of information, of the knowledge and of the quality; they are organizations of excellence, where the ethical, the motivation and the buen exert rinden constant increases in the results and in the recognition of the companies. Like conclusions can arrive to the following: - Without information, without data, is impossible to do, administer. - The flexible organizations, ágiles and with main capacity of learning, in some surroundings that varies with rapidity, present the best conditions for his survival, mejoramiento and the attainment of a main level of competitiveness and of quality. - A company with a felicitous management of information, of the knowledge and of the quality is an organization of excellence. - The active management of the information, of the knowledge and of the quality are three split components of a same process, cuyo objective is the progress of the organization( the existence of one conditions to the another and vice versa). - The management of the quality guarantees the success of the organization generally. - Without the management of the information, his products and services, is impossible to take felicitous decisions, trace the politics and design the processes of the organization. - The vinculación existent between the directors, the resources and the processes in the context of the management of the quality guarantees the location in the market and the competitiveness of the organization. - The management of the information no only attain with the respect to the processes of general management, but from the attainments of the collective and the teams, that aportan the knowledge and the intelligence. - The management of the information, in function of the management of the quality, orienta to a large extent, to the identification of the errors and his causes. Abstracs The different meanings of the terms information management, knowledge management, and quality management plough analyzed; ace well ace their relation to the information institutions activities. It is demonstrated that the existence of one of them implies the presence of the others, if the information institution is considered ace an organization of knowledge and excellence. Subject headings: MANAGEMENT CAPACITY; INFORMATION CENTERS; INFORMATION SCIENCE, QUALITY MANAGEMENT bibliographic References García Oaks R. The new paradigm of the management of the knowledge and his application in the educational field. Available in: http://tecnologiedu.us.It is/edutec/paginas/125.htm. ( Access the 21 of November 2001) Spiegelman BM. Total quality management in libraries: getting down to the real nitty-gaitty. Libr Manag Quart 1992;15(3):12-6. Currás And. Chaos and order in the organizations of the knowledge. Cienc Inform 1996;27(4):239-59. Ponjuan Danté G. 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